Friday, November 27, 2015

WINE & BREAD [137]

British Library 
Four Zoas Manuscript
Page 137 
 Four Zoas, Night IX, Page 136, (E 405)
"They Dance around the Dying & they Drink the howl & groan        
PAGE 137 
They catch the Shrieks in cups of gold they hand them to one another
These are the sports of love & these the sweet delights of amorous play
Tears of the grapes the death sweat of the Cluster the last sigh
Of the mild youth who listens to the luring songs of Luvah

The Eternal Man darkend with Sorrow & a wintry mantle   
Coverd the Hills   He said O Tharmas rise & O Urthona

Then Tharmas & Urthona rose from the Golden feast satiated
With Mirth & joy Urthona limping from his fall on Tharmas leand
In his right hand his hammer Tharmas held his Shepherds crook
Beset with gold gold were the ornaments formed by the sons of Urizen 
Then Enion & Ahania & Vala & the wife of Dark Urthona
Rose from the feast in joy ascending to their Golden Looms
There the wingd shuttle Sang the spindle & the distaff & the Reel
Rang sweet the praise of industry. Thro all the golden rooms
Heaven rang with winged Exultation   All beneath howld loud  
With tenfold rout & desolation roard the Chasms beneath
Where the wide woof flowd down & where the Nations are gatherd together

Tharmas went down to the Wine presses & beheld the sons & daughters
Of Luvah quite exhausted with the Labour & quite filld
With new wine. that they began to torment one another and to tread 
The weak. Luvah & Vala slept on the floor o'erwearied

Urthona calld his Sons around him Tharmas calld his sons
Numrous. they took the wine they separated the Lees
And Luvah was put for dung on the ground by the Sons of Tharmas & Urthona
They formed heavens of sweetest wood of gold & silver & ivory 
Of glass & precious stones They loaded all the waggons of heaven
And took away the wine of ages with solemn songs & joy

Luvah & Vala woke & all the sons & daughters of Luvah
Awoke they wept to one another & they reascended
To the Eternal Man in woe he cast them wailing into              
The world of shadows thro the air till winter is over & gone

But the Human Wine stood wondering in all their delightful Expanses
The Elements subside the heavens rolld on with vocal harmony

Then Los who is Urthona rose in all his regenerate power
The Sea that rolld & foamd with darkness & the shadows of death  
Vomited out & gave up all the floods lift up their hands
Singing & shouting to the Man they bow their hoary heads
And murmuring in their channels flow & circle round his feet
PAGE 138 
Then Dark Urthona took the Corn out of the Stores of Urizen
He ground it in his rumbling Mills Terrible the distress
Of all the Nations of Earth ground in the Mills of Urthona
In his hand Tharmas takes the Storms. he turns the whirlwind Loose
Upon the wheels the stormy seas howl at his dread command"   

Wikimedia Commons
Illustrations to Young's Night Thoughts
Blake returned us to the beginning of the Four Zoas as he selected his image from Night Thoughts to be included on this page. His poem has been an account of a struggle between forces of darkness and light, not in the lower world alone but in the higher realms of thought and feeling, of intuition and integration. Now that the sheep had been divided from the goats the wrestling match was concluded 'not with a bang but a whimper' as TS Elliot would have it. Blake concludes the contest with play and tears and a sigh.

Man's torments resulted from 'Love & Jealousy'. His emotional nature concentrated his positive feeling on one object from which he sought to derive his meaning. This object he sought to possess and control and to exercise exclusive rights over. The intimation of Blake's title is that it not Urizen who initiated the fall from unity, but Luvah as his emanation was projected outward. He became enthralled with Vala, the outer world of nature, which replaced the inner world which furnished his identity. What ensued was Death to a consciousness of Eternity, known as Life in our present world. The sorting of Truth from Error, which Blake called Judgment, was designed to restore Albion the Ancient man to his Eternal condition.

Four Zoas, Night I, Page 1, (E 300)
The torments of Love & Jealousy in 
    The Death and Judgement
    of Albion the Ancient Man

   by William Blake 1797"    

Four Zoas, Night I, Page 2, (E 300)
     "Rest before Labour"

Four Zoas, Night I, Page 3, (E 300) 
[Quote in Greek] 
"For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places." [Ephesians 6:12]

      Night the First
The Song of the Aged Mother which shook the heavens with wrath
Hearing the march of long resounding strong heroic Verse
Marshalld in order for the day of Intellectual Battle"
On Page 137 Love and Jealousy had lost their power to dominate the psyche. Albion, the Ancient Man, had endured Death in the world of time and space, and was prepared for Judgment in the world of Eternity.

After Blake had the Eternal Man darken over the descent of the emotions into excesses of amorous and aggressive activity, he paused while Urizen's wintry mantle quelled the fervent activity. Urthona and Tharmas were called upon to carry on the work of cleansing the psyche for regeneration. The dregs which had been separated from the juice were designated to fertilize a future crop. When the Human Wine of emotion was thus prepared and purified, Urthona and Tharmas proceeded to the baking of the Bread of Ages from Urizen's corn of thought. 

When the winter of Time is over Man shall eat the Bread and drink the Wine and be satisfied.

Letters, (E 709)
"And My Brother is there & My Friend & Thine
Descend & Ascend with the Bread & the Wine

The Bread of sweet Thought & the Wine of Delight
Feeds the Village of Felpham by day & by night" 

Matthew 25
[31] When the Son of man shall come in his glory, and all the holy angels with him, then shall he sit upon the throne of his glory
[32] And before him shall be gathered all nations: and he shall separate them one from another, as a shepherd divideth his sheep from the goats:
[33] And he shall set the sheep on his right hand, but the goats on the left.
[34] Then shall the King say unto them on his right hand, Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world:
[35] For I was an hungred, and ye gave me meat: I was thirsty, and ye gave me drink: I was a stranger, and ye took me in:
[36] Naked, and ye clothed me: I was sick, and ye visited me: I was in prison, and ye came unto me.
[37] Then shall the righteous answer him, saying, Lord, when saw we thee an hungred, and fed thee? or thirsty, and gave thee drink?
[38] When saw we thee a stranger, and took thee in? or naked, and clothed thee?
[39] Or when saw we thee sick, or in prison, and came unto thee?
[40] And the King shall answer and say unto them, Verily I say unto you, Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren, ye have done it unto me.
[41] Then shall he say also unto them on the left hand, Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels:
[42] For I was an hungred, and ye gave me no meat: I was thirsty, and ye gave me no drink:
[43] I was a stranger, and ye took me not in: naked, and ye clothed me not: sick, and in prison, and ye visited me not.
[44] Then shall they also answer him, saying, Lord, when saw we thee an hungred, or athirst, or a stranger, or naked, or sick, or in prison, and did not minister unto thee?
[45] Then shall he answer them, saying, Verily I say unto you, Inasmuch as ye did it not to one of the least of these, ye did it not to me.
[46] And these shall go away into everlasting punishment: but the righteous into life eternal.

Deuteronomy 14
[29] And the Levite, (because he hath no part nor inheritance with thee,) and the stranger, and the fatherless, and the widow, which are within thy gates, shall come, and shall eat and be satisfied; that the LORD thy God may bless thee in all the work of thine hand which thou doest.

Tuesday, November 24, 2015


British Library
Four Zoas Manuscript
Page 135

Four Zoas, Night IX, Page 134, (E 403)
"So loud so clear in the wide heavens & the song that they sung was this
Composed by an African Black from the little Earth of Sotha

Aha Aha how came I here so soon in my sweet native land  
How came I here Methinks I am as I was in my youth
PAGE 135 
When in my fathers house I sat & heard his chearing voice
Methinks I see his flocks & herds & feel my limbs renewd
And Lo my Brethren in their tents & their little ones around them

The song arose to the Golden feast the Eternal Man rejoicd
Then the Eternal Man said Luvah the Vintage is ripe arise        
The sons of Urizen shall gather the vintage with sharp hooks
And all thy sons O Luvah bear away the families of Earth
I hear the flail of Urizen his barns are full no room
Remains & in the Vineyards stand the abounding sheaves beneath
The falling Grapes that odorous burst upon the winds. Arise      
My flocks & herds trample the Corn my cattle browze upon
The ripe Clusters The shepherds shout for Luvah prince of Love
Let the Bulls of Luvah tread the Corn & draw the loaded waggon
Into the Barn while children glean the Ears around the door
Then shall they lift their innocent hands & stroke his furious nose 
And he shall lick the little girls white neck & on her head
Scatter the perfume of his breath while from his mountains high
The lion of terror shall come down & bending his bright mane
And couching at their side shall eat from the curld boys white lap
His golden food and in the evening sleep before the Door     

Attempting to be more than Man We become less said Luvah
As he arose from the bright feast drunk with the wine of ages
His crown of thorns fell from his head he hung his living Lyre
Behind the seat of the Eternal Man & took his way
Sounding the Song of Los descending to the Vineyards bright      
His sons arising from the feast with golden baskets follow
A fiery train as when the Sun sings in the ripe vineyards
Then Luvah stood before the wine press all his fiery sons
Brought up the loaded Waggons with shoutings ramping tygers play
In the jingling traces furious lions sound the song of joy       
To the golden wheels circling upon the pavement of heaven & all
The Villages of Luvah ring the golden tiles of the villages
Reply to violins & tabors to the pipe flute lyre & cymbal
Then fell the Legions of Mystery in maddning confusion
Down Down thro the immense with outcry fury & despair            
Into the wine presses of Luvah howling fell the Clusters
Of human families thro the deep. the wine presses were filld
The blood of life flowd plentiful Odors of life arose
All round the heavenly arches & the Odors rose singing this son
PAGE 136 
O terrible wine presses of Luvah O caverns of the Grave
How lovely the delights of those risen again from death
O trembling joy excess of joy is like Excess of grief

So sang the Human Odors round the wine presses of Luvah

But in the Wine presses is wailing terror & despair              
Forsaken of their Elements they vanish & are no more
No more but a desire of Being a distracted ravening desire
Desiring like the hungry worm & like the gaping grave     
They plunge into the Elements the Elements cast them forth
Or else consume their shadowy semblance Yet they obstinate       
Tho pained to distraction Cry O let us Exist for
This dreadful Non Existence is worse than pains of Eternal Birth
Eternal Death who can Endure. let us consume in fires
In waters stifling or in air corroding or in earth shut up
The Pangs of Eternal birth are better than the Pangs of Eternal Death"   

Wikipedia Commons
Illustrations to Young's Night Thoughts
If a housewife were to buy a bushel of apples to last through the winter, she would sort through the apples before she stored them. The bruised and damaged she would remove. A portion of those could be salvaged if used before decay could spread. But they could not be saved with the unblemished apples which were meant to provide nourishment through the lean times. Blake used the image of the vintage to portray the sorting process which removed what could not be preserved from the valuable uncontaminated products which had been gained through the experience of living in time.

The familiar characters of Urizen and Luvah play roles in this stage of apocalypse. The accounts of the fall of the Eternal Man into division involved Urizen and Luvah plotting to abandon their intended roles and assume the function of other Zoas. At this stage of the Four Zoas, Urizen had reassumed his position in the scheme of things, now Luvah's contamination of psychological functioning predicated on emotional decision making needed to be cleansed from the psyche. The pleasure principle based on fulfilling of desire maintained a tenacious hold and was not readily relinquished. 

Urizen as the mind's rational activity would gather the grapes without regard to their content for potential inclusion in the wine of life. Blake transitioned to focusing on the disposition of Luvah whose role in the fallen condition of man had to be reversed. The fruit that was gathered was the same that has been processed by various aspects of the natural world: the flocks and herds, the cattle, the bulls, and the lion, implying activities of the Zoas as they functioned in the natural environment. The Elemental order of the natural world sustained the continuation of the operation of the mind under control of emotional responses. The breaking of that order in the outer world removed the support which maintained Luvah's emotional control in the psyche. The old wine on which the sons of Luvah were drunk was a 'distracted ravening desire.' The 'odors of life' extracted by the winepress were the 'delights of those risen again from death.'

In Jerusalem Blake described the condition of torment when love led to jealousy which was followed by various 'species of contention.' Through the vintage Blake was, by removing the sources of infection, reversing the damage which resulted from becoming subject to this bondage.

Jerusalem, Plate 69, (E 223)
"Devouring Jerusalem from every Nation of the Earth.    
Envying stood the enormous Form at variance with Itself
In all its Members: in eternal of love & jealousy:
Drivn forth by Los time after time from Albions cliffy shore,
Drawing the free loves of Jerusalem into infernal bondage;
That they might be born in Contentions of Chastity & in  
Deadly Hate between Leah & Rachel, Daughters of Deceit & Fraud
Bearing the Images of various Species of Contention
And Jealousy & Abhorrence & Revenge & deadly Murder.
Till they refuse liberty to the male; & not like Beulah
Where every Female delights to give her maiden to her husband"
If the grain were not harvested, winnowed and milled; if the grapes were not subjected to the winepress; it the unclean spirits were not cast out of the demoniac; apocalypse could not proceed.

Mark 5
[8] For he said unto him, Come out of the man, thou unclean spirit.
[9] And he asked him, What is thy name? And he answered, saying, My name is Legion: for we are many.
[10] And he besought him much that he would not send them away out of the country.
[11] Now there was there nigh unto the mountains a great herd of swine feeding.
[12] And all the devils besought him, saying, Send us into the swine, that we may enter into them.
[13] And forthwith Jesus gave them leave. And the unclean spirits went out, and entered into the swine: and the herd ran violently down a steep place into the sea, (they were about two thousand;) and were choked in the sea.
[14] And they that fed the swine fled, and told it in the city, and in the country. And they went out to see what it was that was done.
[15] And they come to Jesus, and see him that was possessed with the devil, and had the legion, sitting, and clothed, and in his right mind:

Saturday, November 21, 2015


British Library
Four Zoas Manuscript
Page 133
Four Zoas, Night IX, Page 132, (E 401)
"Joy thrilld thro all the Furious form of Tharmas humanizing
Mild he Embracd her whom he sought he raisd her thro the heavens
Sounding his trumpet to awake the Dead on high he soard
Over the ruind worlds the smoking tomb of the Eternal Prophet
PAGE 133 
The Eternal Man arose he welcomd them to the Feast
The feast was spread in the bright South & the Eternal Man
Sat at the feast rejoicing & the wine of Eternity
Was servd round by the flames of Luvah all day & all the night

And Many Eternal Men sat at the golden feast to see 
The female form now separate They shudderd at the horrible thing
Not born for the sport and amusement of Man but born to drink up all his powers
They wept to see their shadows they said to one another this is Sin                   
This is the Generative world they rememberd the Days of old

And One of the Eternals spoke All was silent at the feast 

Man is a Worm wearied with joy he seeks the caves of sleep
Among the Flowers of Beulah in his Selfish cold repose
Forsaking Brotherhood & Universal love in selfish clay
Folding the pure wings of his mind seeking the places dark
Abstracted from the roots of Science then inclosd around    
In walls of Gold we cast him like a Seed into the Earth
Till times & spaces have passd over him duly every morn
We visit him covering with a Veil the immortal seed
With windows from the inclement sky we cover him & with walls
And hearths protect the Selfish terror till divided all 

In families we see our shadows born. & thence we know  | Ephesians
That Man subsists by Brotherhood & Universal Love        |    iii c.
We fall on one anothers necks more closely we embrace |   10 v   
Not for ourselves but for the Eternal family we live
Man liveth not by Self alone but in his brothers face            
Each shall behold the Eternal Father & love & joy abound

So spoke the Eternal at the Feast they embracd the New born Man
Calling him Brother image of the Eternal Father. they sat down
At the immortal tables sounding loud their instruments of joy
Calling the Morning into Beulah the Eternal Man rejoicd          

When Morning dawnd The Eternals rose to labour at the Vintage
Beneath they saw their sons & daughters wondering inconcievable
At the dark myriads in Shadows in the worlds beneath

The morning dawnd Urizen rose & in his hand the Flail
Sounds on the Floor heard terrible by all beneath the heavens    
Dismal loud redounding the nether floor shakes with the sound
PAGE 134 
And all Nations were threshed out & the stars threshd from their husks

Then Tharmas took the Winnowing fan the winnowing wind furious
Above veerd round by the violent whirlwind driven west & south
Tossed the Nations like Chaff into the seas of Tharmas

O Mystery Fierce Tharmas cries Behold thy end is come            
Art thou she that made the nations drunk with the cup of Religion
Go down ye Kings & Councellors & Giant Warriors
Go down into the depths go down & hide yourselves beneath
Go down with horse & Chariots & Trumpets of hoarse war

Lo how the Pomp of Mystery goes down into the Caves"  

Ephesians 3 
[8] Unto me, who am less than the least of all saints, is this grace given, that I should preach among the Gentiles the unsearchable riches of Christ; 
[9] And to make all men see what is the fellowship of the mystery, which from the beginning of the world hath been hid in God, who created all things by Jesus Christ: 
[10] To the intent that now unto the principalities and powers in heavenly places might be known by the church the manifold wisdom of God, 
[11] According to the eternal purpose which he purposed in Christ Jesus our Lord: 
[12] In whom we have boldness and access with confidence by the faith of him.

British Museum
Illustrations to Young's Night Thoughts
With the rehabilitation of Tharmas complete Blake turned to Luvah as he introduced the image of the vintage.

The process which Blake described was one of building and destroying, of discovering truth and rejecting falsehood, being elevated and being brought low. Embracing the 'New born Man' required that the 'labour at the vintage' continue. The old wine had to be eliminated for the new wine to be formed. The wheat and chaff had to be separated.

As the Eternals sat at the feast, they recapitulated the account of man's history in the material world as it appeared to them. They became reconciled to man as a brother in their family when they acknowledged that 'Man subsists by Brotherhood & Universal Love'. The scripture to which Blake refers, Ephesians 3:10 states: "To the intent that now unto the principalities and powers in heavenly places might be known by the church the manifold wisdom of God." This a reciprocal arrangement: what is beheld on earth is beheld in heaven and the reverse is equally true.

The vintage included eliminating the aspect of Luvah which included emotional excesses of a sexual nature which were associated with the mystery religions.

Harold Bloom, in Blake's Apocalypse, on page 280 states the situation in this way:
"Now the vegetative mysteries are over; the dying gods are dead, and only the human is to remain. The wine of life is separated from the lees of the deathly, and the dying-god aspect of man's emotional being is 'put for dung on the ground,' to fertilize the new birth of nature that will cease to be cyclic. The wine of ages, the waters of a more abundant life, are carried off in a harvest festival of rejoicing by everything in man that is more creative."

The image from Night Thoughts can be seen as the wrath of God treading out the vintage represented by the fallen rulers of the nations of the world.

Romans 1
[18] For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who hold the truth in unrighteousness;
[19] Because that which may be known of God is manifest in them; for God hath shewed it unto them.
20] For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead; so that they are without excuse:
[21] Because that, when they knew God, they glorified him not as God, neither were thankful; but became vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was darkened.
[22] Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools,

Revelation 14
[18] And another angel came out from the altar, which had power over fire; and cried with a loud cry to him that had the sharp sickle, saying, Thrust in thy sharp sickle, and gather the clusters of the vine of the earth; for her grapes are fully ripe.
[19] And the angel thrust in his sickle into the earth, and gathered the vine of the earth, and cast it into the great winepress of the wrath of God.

Tuesday, November 17, 2015


British Library
Four Zoas Manuscript
Page 131

Four Zoas, Night IX, age 130, (E 399)
"So saying they went down into the garden among the fruits
And Enion sang among the flowers that grew among the trees
And Vala said Go Tharmas weep not Go to Enion

PAGE 131
He said O Vala I am sick & all this garden of Pleasure
Swims like a dream before my eyes but the sweet smelling fruit
Revives me to new deaths I fade even like a water lilly
In the suns heat till in the night on the couch of Enion
I drink new life & feel the breath of sleeping Enion 
But in the morning she arises to avoid my Eyes
Then my loins fade & in the house I sit me down & weep 

Chear up thy Countenance bright boy & go to Enion
Tell her that Vala waits her in the shadows of her garden

He went with timid steps & Enion like the ruddy morn 
When infant spring appears in swelling buds & opening flowers
Behind her Veil withdraws so Enion turnd her modest head

But Tharmas spoke Vala seeks thee sweet Enion in the shades
Follow the steps of Tharmas O thou brightness of the gardens
He took her hand reluctant she followd in infant doubts 
Thus in Eternal Childhood straying among Valas flocks
In infant sorrow & joy alternate Enion & Tharmas playd
Round Vala in the Gardens of Vala & by her rivers margin
They are the shadows of Tharmas & of Enion in Valas world

And the sleepers who rested from their harvest work beheld these visions
Thus were the sleepers entertaind upon the Couches of Beulah

When Luvah & Vala were closd up in their world of shadowy forms
Darkness was all beneath the heavens only a little light
Such as glows out from sleeping spirits appeard in the deeps beneath
As when the wind sweeps over a Corn field the noise of souls 
Thro all the immense borne down by Clouds swagging in autumnal heat
Muttering along from heaven to heaven hoarse roll the human forms
Beneath thick clouds dreadful lightnings burst & thunders roll
Down pour the torrent Floods of heaven on all the human harvest
Then Urizen sitting at his repose on beds in the bright South 
Cried Times are Ended he Exulted he arose in joy he exulted
He pourd his light & all his Sons & daughters pourd their light
To exhale the spirits of Luvah & Vala thro the atmosphere
And Luvah & Vala saw the Light their spirits were Exhald
In all their ancient innocence the floods depart the clouds 
Dissipate or sink into the Seas of Tharmas   Luvah sat
Above in the bright heavens in peace. the Spirits of Men beneath
Cried out to be deliverd & the Spirit of Luvah wept
Over the human harvest & over Vala the sweet wanderer
In pain the human harvest wavd in horrible groans of woe 

PAGE 132 
The Universal Groan went up the Eternal Man was Darkend

Then Urizen arose & took his Sickle in his hand
There is a brazen sickle & a scythe of iron hid
Deep in the South guarded by a few solitary stars
This sickle Urizen took the scythe his sons embracd 
And went forth & began to reap & all his joyful sons
Reapd the wide Universe & bound in Sheaves a wondrous harvest"

British Museum
Illustrations to Young's Night Thoughts
Blake used the same engraving from Night Thoughts for pages 121 and 131 of the Four Zoas. Both pages of text feature Urzien: on page 121 he resolved to relinquish the dominion to which he had aspired, on 131 he initiated the gathering of the human harvest. By choosing the same picture for both events Blake was indicating that reassembling the divided pieces of the psyche and harvesting the fruit and grain which would continue to nourish the soul of man in eternity were of the same cloth.

The conflicts and tensions which had dominated the fallen condition of man were being brought to a close. They were relegated to areas of the mind appropriate to their function. They would no longer be projected outward where they were manifest in war, and cruelty, neglect and domination. Tharmas and Enion would display the panoply of their interactions in Luvah's and Vala's world called Beulah where contraries are equally true:

Milton, Plate 30 [33], (E 129) 
"There is a place where Contrarieties are equally True 
This place is called Beulah, It is a pleasant lovely Shadow 
Where no dispute can come. Because of those who Sleep. 
Into this place the Sons & Daughters of Ololon descended 
With solemn mourning into Beulahs moony shades & hills 
Weeping for Milton: mute wonder held the Daughters of Beulah 
Enrapturd with affection sweet and mild benevolence 
Beulah is evermore Created around Eternity; appearing
To the Inhabitants of Eden, around them on all sides.
But Beulah to its Inhabitants appears within each district       
As the beloved infant in his mothers bosom round incircled
With arms of love & pity & sweet compassion. But to
The Sons of Eden the moony habitations of Beulah,
Are from Great Eternity a mild & pleasant Rest. 
 And it is thus Created. Lo the Eternal Great Humanity            
To whom be Glory & Dominion Evermore Amen
Walks among all his awful Family seen in every face
As the breath of the Almighty. such are the words of man to man
In the great Wars of Eternity, in fury of Poetic Inspiration,
To build the Universe stupendous: Mental forms Creating          

But the Emanations trembled exceedingly, nor could they
Live, because the life of Man was too exceeding unbounded
His joy became terrible to them they trembled & wept
Crying with one voice. Give us a habitation & a place
In which we may be hidden under the shadow of wings              
For if we who are but for a time, & who pass away in winter
Behold these wonders of Eternity we shall consume
But you O our Fathers & Brothers, remain in Eternity
But grant us a Temporal Habitation. do you speak
To us; we will obey your words as you obey Jesus                 
The Eternal who is blessed for ever & ever. Amen

So spake the lovely Emanations; & there appeard a pleasant
Mild Shadow above: beneath: & on all sides round,

PLATE 31 [34]
Into this pleasant Shadow all the weak & weary
Like Women & Children were taken away as on wings
Of dovelike softness, & shadowy habitations prepared for them"

Luvah and Vala, Tharmas and Enion had been granted rest from the severe contentions of Eternity.

Damon states on page 286 of A Blake Dictionary that "It is the function of the female to provide a moony space of refuge and rest for the male."

But no less important is the function of the Emanation in facilitating the interaction of Man with Man in Eternity.

Jerusalem, Plate 88, (E246)
"When in Eternity Man converses with Man they enter
Into each others Bosom (which are Universes of delight)
In mutual interchange. and first their Emanations meet
Surrounded by their Children. if they embrace & comingle
The Human Four-fold Forms mingle also in thunders of Intellect
But if the Emanations mingle not; with storms & agitations
Of earthquakes & consuming fires they roll apart in fear
For Man cannot unite with Man but by their Emanations
Which stand both Male & Female at the Gates of each Humanity"

Saturday, November 14, 2015


British Library Four Zoas Manuscript Page 130

Four Zoas, Night IX, PAGE 130, (E 398) 
"And She [Vala] rose out of the river & girded on her golden girdle

And now her feet step on the grassy bosom of the ground
Among her flocks & she turnd her eyes toward her pleasant house
And saw in the door way beneath the trees two little children playing
She drew near to her house & her flocks followd her footsteps 
The Children clung around her knees she embracd them & wept over them

Thou little Boy art Tharmas & thou bright Girl Enion
How are ye thus renewd & brought into the Gardens of Vala

She embracd them in tears. till the sun descended the western hills
And then she enterd her bright house leading her mighty children 
And when night came the flocks laid round the house beneath the trees
She laid the Children on the beds which she saw prepard in the house
Then last herself laid down & closd her Eyelids in soft slumbers

And in the morning when the Sun arose in the crystal sky
Vala awoke & calld the children from their gentle slumbers 

Awake O Enion awake & let thine innocent Eyes
Enlighten all the Crystal house of Vala awake awake
Awake Tharmas awake awake thou child of dewy tears
Open the orbs of thy blue eyes & smile upon my gardens

The Children woke & smild on Vala. she kneeld by the golden couch
She presd them to her bosom & her pearly tears dropd down
O my sweet Children   Enion let Tharmas kiss thy Cheek
Why dost thou turn thyself away from his sweet watry eyes
Tharmas henceforth in Valas bosom thou shalt find sweet peace
O bless the lovely eyes of Tharmas & the Eyes of Enion 

They rose they went out wandring sometimes together sometimes alone

Why weepest thou Tharmas Child of tears in the bright house of joy
Doth Enion avoid the sight of thy blue heavenly Eyes
And dost thou wander with my lambs & wet their innocent faces 
With thy bright tears because the steps of Enion are in the gardens 
Arise sweet boy & let us follow the path of Enion

So saying they went down into the garden among the fruits
And Enion sang among the flowers that grew among the trees
And Vala said Go Tharmas weep not Go to Enion"

After Vala had experienced her own epiphany and 'girded on her golden girdle' she became capable of seeing others who were in need of her help.

On page 32 of A Blake Dictionary, Damon comments on the Gardens of Vala: "Vala's Garden is the realm of daydreaming, where our hopes and fears are fugitive shapes. Being part subconscious, it is entered through 'the Gates of Dark Urthona.'

Tharmas whom we had first met as the 'parent power' indicating that he was the primitive force which was the foundation of the psyche, now appeared with Enion as a 'little boy.' Vala provided a house, a garden and a bed for the two 'mighty children', but Enion continued to turn away from Tharmas. When Vala and Tharmas together followed the path of Enion, Tharmas gained the courage to wipe away his tears and approach Enion.

Vala had led the children away from the tensions in their conscious states into the subconscious where they rightly live. Sexuality is an expression of the body which rightly practiced nourishes the spirit. In Blake's system instinctual behavior originates in Tharmas who, like the id, is the source of life's energies. In Vala's garden Tharmas could lay down his insistent demand that Enion forgive and forget, and Enion could ignore the unpleasant consequences which troubled her restless mind.

The healing of the psyche was being passed from one faculty to another:  

Enitharmon to Los (

Los to Urizen (

Urizen to Ahania (

Ahania to Vala (

Vala to Tharmas (

Tharmas to Enion.

Wednesday, November 11, 2015


British Library Four Zoas Manuscript
Page 129
Four Zoas, Night IX, Page 128, (E 397)
"Vala awoke. When in the pleasant gates of sleep I enterd
I saw my Luvah like a spirit stand in the bright air 
Round him stood spirits like me who reard me a bright house
And here I see thee house remain in my most pleasant world

PAGE 129 
My Luvah smild I kneeled down he laid his hand on my head
And when he laid his hand upon me from the gates of sleep I came
Into this bodily house to tend my flocks in my pleasant garden

So saying she arose & walked round her beautiful house
And then from her white door she lookd to see her bleating lambs 
But her flocks were gone up from beneath the trees into the hills

I see the hand that leadeth me doth also lead my flocks
She went up to her flocks & turned oft to see her shining house
She stopd to drink of the clear spring & eat the grapes & apples
She bore the fruits in her lap she gatherd flowers for her bosom
She called to her flocks saying follow me O my flocks

They followd her to the silent vall[e]y beneath the spreading trees
And on the rivers margin she ungirded her golden girdle
She stood in the river & viewd herself within the watry glass
And her bright hair was wet with the waters She rose up from the river
And as she rose her Eyes were opend to the world of waters
She saw Tharmas sitting upon the rocks beside the wavy sea
He strokd the water from his beard & mournd faint thro the summer vales

And Vala stood on the rocks of Tharmas & heard his mournful voice

O Enion my weary head is in the bed of death 
For weeds of death have wrapd around my limbs in the hoary deeps
I sit in the place of shells & mourn & thou art closd in clouds
When will the time of Clouds be past & the dismal night of Tharmas
Arise O Enion Arise & smile upon my head        
As thou dost smile upon the barren mountains and they rejoice 
When wilt thou smile on Tharmas O thou bringer of golden day
Arise O Enion arise for Lo I have calmd my seas

So saying his faint head he laid upon the Oozy rock
And darkness coverd all the deep the light of Enion faded
Like a fa[i]nt flame quivering upon the surface of the darkness 

Then Vala lifted up her hands to heaven to call on Enion
She calld but none could answer her & the Eccho of her voice returnd

Where is the voice of God that calld me from the silent dew
Where is the Lord of Vala dost thou hide in clefts of the rock
Why shouldst thou hide thyself from Vala from the soul that wanders desolate

She ceas'd & light beamd round her like the glory of the morning

PAGE 130 
And She arose out of the river & girded on her golden girdle"
British Museum
Illustrations to Young's Night Thoughts

As Vala was able to relinquish her diseased expressions of emotion which had accumulated during the fall and sleep of Albion, she realized the gentle beauty which was within and around her. It was not for herself alone that she has been healed, but for her flocks who were vulnerable and looked to her for care. While tending her flocks she was led to a river where she received a vision of Tharmas and his world of fluctuating time and space flowing in the milieu of matter. 

Seeing the distress of Tharmas as he futilely attempted to effect the return of his Emanation Enion, Vala appealed to Enion to awake and arise. Although Vala's calls to Enion went unanswered, her appeal to the 'voice' that had called her back to consciousness, elicited a  response. She received a vision of his presence as light surrounding her and she was motivated to prepare herself for further tasks.

As was Blake's custom, he used an illustration from Night Thoughts which would not ordinarily be linked with his text. The image can be associated with Jesus' parable of the Good Samaritan from the gospel of Luke. Christ himself is shown in the role of the Samaritan offering a balm in an egg shaped container labelled with a serpent. The other two passers-by retreat into the distance. Prominently shown is the beast on which the wounded man was to be transported. The scene is set under the palm of suffering and the oak of weeping which Blake references in this passage in Jerusalem.

Jerusalem, Plate 58, (E 208) 
"A World of Generation continually Creating; out of        
The Hermaphroditic Satanic World of rocky destiny.

And formed into Four precious stones. for enterance from Beulah

For the Veil of Vala which Albion cast into the Atlantic Deep
To catch the Souls of the Dead: began to Vegetate & Petrify
Around the Earth of Albion. among the Roots of his Tree
This Los formed into the Gates & mighty Wall, between the Oak    
Of Weeping & the Palm of Suffering beneath Albions Tomb,
Thus in process of time it became the beautiful Mundane Shell,
The Habitation of the Spectres of the Dead & the Place
Of Redemption & of awaking again into Eternity"
The process of redemption is taking place at many levels, in many ways. The unexpected appearance of means and instruments of redemption are available for those who listen and see and request, and who recognize the light that appears 'like the glory of the morning.'

Luke 10
[25] And, behold, a certain lawyer stood up, and tempted him, saying, Master, what shall I do to inherit eternal life?
[26] He said unto him, What is written in the law? how readest thou?
[27] And he answering said, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy strength, and with all thy mind; and thy neighbour as thyself.
[28] And he said unto him, Thou hast answered right: this do, and thou shalt live.
[29] But he, willing to justify himself, said unto Jesus, And who is my neighbour?
[30] And Jesus answering said, A certain man went down from Jerusalem to Jericho, and fell among thieves, which stripped him of his raiment, and wounded him, and departed, leaving him half dead.
[31] And by chance there came down a certain priest that way: and when he saw him, he passed by on the other side.
[32] And likewise a Levite, when he was at the place, came and looked on him, and passed by on the other side.
[33] But a certain Samaritan, as he journeyed, came where he was: and when he saw him, he had compassion on him,
[34] And went to him, and bound up his wounds, pouring in oil and wine, and set him on his own beast, and brought him to an inn, and took care of him.
[35] And on the morrow when he departed, he took out two pence, and gave them to the host, and said unto him, Take care of him; and whatsoever thou spendest more, when I come again, I will repay thee.
[36] Which now of these three, thinkest thou, was neighbour unto him that fell among the thieves?
[37] And he said, He that shewed mercy on him. Then said Jesus unto him, Go, and do thou likewise

Sunday, November 08, 2015


British Library Four Zoas Manuscript
Page 127
Four Zoas, Night IX, Page 126, (E 395) 
"Luvah & Vala descended & enterd the Gates of Dark Urthona
And walkd from the hands of Urizen in the shadows of Valas Garden
Where the impressions of Despair & Hope for ever vegetate        
In flowers in fruits in fishes birds & beasts & clouds & waters
The land of doubts & shadows sweet delusions unformd hopes
They saw no more the terrible confusion of the wracking universe
They heard not saw not felt not all the terrible confusion
For in their orbed senses within closd up they wanderd at will   
And those upon the Couches viewd them in the dreams of Beulah
As they reposd from the terrible wide universal harvest
Invisible Luvah in bright clouds hoverd over Valas head
And thus their ancient golden age renewd for Luvah spoke
With voice mild from his golden Cloud upon the breath of morning 

Come forth O Vala from the grass & from the silent Dew
Rise from the dews of death for the Eternal Man is Risen

She rises among flowers & looks toward the Eastern clearness
She walks yea runs her feet are wingd on the tops of the bending grass
Her garments rejoice in the vocal wind & her hair glistens with dew 

She answerd thus Whose voice is this in voice of the nourishing air
In the spirit of the morning awaking the Soul from its grassy bed

PAGE 127 
Where dost thou dwell for it is thee I seek & but for thee
I must have slept Eternally nor have felt the dew of thy morning
Look how the opening dawn advances with vocal harmony
Look how the beams foreshew the rising of some glorious power
The sun is thine he goeth forth in his majestic brightness  
O thou creating voice that callest & who shall answer thee

Where dost thou flee O fair one where dost thou seek thy happy place

To yonder brightness there I haste for sure I came from thence
Or I must have slept eternally nor have felt the dew of morning

Eternally thou must have slept nor have felt the morning dew 
But for yon nourishing sun tis that by which thou art arisen
The birds adore the sun the beasts rise up & play in his beams
And every flower & every leaf rejoices in his light
Then O thou fair one sit thee down for thou art as the grass
Thou risest in the dew of morning & at night art folded up 

Alas am I but as a flower then will I sit me down
Then will I weep then Ill complain & sigh for immortality
And chide my maker thee O Sun that raisedst me to fall

So saying she sat down & wept beneath the apple trees

O be thou blotted out thou Sun that raisedst me to trouble 
That gavest me a heart to crave & raisedst me thy phantom
To feel thy heat & see thy light & wander here alone
Hopeless if I am like the grass & so shall pass away

Rise sluggish Soul why sitst thou here why dost thou sit & weep
Yon Sun shall wax old & decay but thou shalt ever flourish 
The fruit shall ripen & fall down & the flowers consume away
But thou shalt still survive arise O dry thy dewy tears

Hah! Shall I still survive whence came that sweet & comforting voice
And whence that voice of sorrow O sun thou art nothing now to me
Go on thy course rejoicing & let us both rejoice together 
I walk among his flocks & hear the bleating of his lambs
O that I could behold his face & follow his pure feet
I walk by the footsteps of his flocks come hither tender flocks
Can you converse with a pure Soul that seeketh for her maker
You answer not then am I set your mistress in this garden 
Ill watch you & attend your footsteps you are not like the birds

PAGE 128 
That Sing & fly in the bright air but you do lick my feet
And let me touch your wooly backs   follow me as I sing
For in my bosom a new song arises to my Lord"

British Museum
Illustrations to Young's Night Thoughts
As Blake shifts attention to the regeneration of Luvah & Vala, he shifts the field of action to the territory of Urthona which we associate with man's unconscious mind. The recovery of man's emotional functioning needs the ministry of his spiritual dimension which lies deep within his psyche. The hands of Urizen cannot provide healing which is required.


Vala's healing is crucial since her dislocation precipitated the loss of Albion's integrity. Vala must be recovered by the totality, however the distortions which she accumulated must be discarded before her Eternal lineaments appear. On plate 127 we read of the interplay between the worldly Vala and her Eternal reality. Her dependence on the external sun is overcome as she finds light within.

As Luvah & Vala descend into Urthona's world they leave behind the confusion as it is projected outwardly. It is Luvah whose presence is in a cloud surrounding Vala's head, who calls Vala forth. She recognizes him as a voice. She is unsure if she is dependent on the natural world with no permanence. She wants to be reassured that she will not pass away. When she seeks to see the face and follow the footsteps of the 'voice' that speaks to her, she feels a song arise within her. A comforting presence accompanies her as watches and attends the flock. 

First Peter 1
[17] And if ye call on the Father, who without respect of persons judgeth according to every man's work, pass the time of your sojourning here in fear:
[18] Forasmuch as ye know that ye were not redeemed with corruptible things, as silver and gold, from your vain conversation received by tradition from your fathers;
[19] But with the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without spot:
[20] Who verily was foreordained before the foundation of the world, but was manifest in these last times for you,
[21] Who by him do believe in God, that raised him up from the dead, and gave him glory; that your faith and hope might be in God.
[22] Seeing ye have purified your souls in obeying the truth through the Spirit unto unfeigned love of the brethren, see that ye love one another with a pure heart fervently:
[23] Being born again, not of corruptible seed, but of incorruptible, by the word of God, which liveth and abideth for ever.
[24] For all flesh is as grass, and all the glory of man as the flower of grass. The grass withereth, and the flower thereof falleth away:
[25] But the word of the Lord endureth for ever. And this is the word which by the gospel is preached unto you.

Revelation 5
[7] And he came and took the book out of the right hand of him that sat upon the throne.
[8] And when he had taken the book, the four beasts and four and twenty elders fell down before the Lamb, having every one of them harps, and golden vials full of odours, which are the prayers of saints.
[9] And they sung a new song, saying, Thou art worthy to take the book, and to open the seals thereof: for thou wast slain, and hast redeemed us to God by thy blood out of every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation;
[10] And hast made us unto our God kings and priests: and we shall reign on the earth.

Genesis 1
[2] And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.

Thursday, November 05, 2015


British Library
Four Zoas Manuscript
Page 125

Four Zoas, Night IX, Page 124, (E 394)
"Then Urizen commanded & they brought the Seed of Men            
The trembling souls of All the Dead stood before Urizen
Weak wailing in the troubled air East west & north & south

Page 125 
He turnd the horses loose & laid his Plow in the northern corner
Of the wide Universal field. then Stepd forth into the immense 

Then he began to sow the seed he girded round his loins
With a bright girdle & his skirt filld with immortal souls
Howling & Wailing fly the souls from Urizens strong hand         

For from the hand of Urizen the myriads fall like stars
Into their own appointed places driven back by the winds
The naked warriors rush together down to the sea shores
They are become like wintry flocks like forests stripd of leaves
The Kings & Princes of the Earth cry with a feeble cry           
Driven on the unproducing sands & on the hardend rocks
And all the while the flames of Orc follow the ventrous feet
Of Urizen & all the while the Trump of Tharmas sounds
Weeping & wailing fly the souls from Urizens strong hand
The daughters of Urizen stand with Cups & measures of foaming wine
Immense upon the heavens with bread & delicate repasts

Then follows the golden harrow in the midst of Mental fires
To ravishing melody of flutes & harps & softest voice
The seed is harrowd in while flames heat the black mould & cause
The human harvest to begin Towards the south first sprang 
The myriads & in silent fear they look out from their graves

Then Urizen sits down to rest & all his wearied Sons
Take their repose on beds they drink they sing they view the flames
Of Orc in joy they view the human harvest springing up
A time they give to sweet repose till all the harvest is ripe    

And Lo like the harvest Moon Ahania cast off her death clothes
She folded them up in care in silence & her brightning limbs
Bathd in the clear spring of the rock then from her darksom cave
Issud in majesty divine   Urizen rose up from his couch
On wings of tenfold joy clapping his hands his feet his radiant wings
In the immense as when the Sun dances upon the mountains
A shout of jubilee in lovely notes responding from daughter to daughter
From son to Son as if the Stars beaming innumerable
Thro night should sing soft warbling filling Earth & heaven
And bright Ahania took her seat by Urizen in songs & joy         

The Eternal Man also sat down upon the Couches of Beulah
Sorrowful that he could not put off his new risen body
In mental flames the flames refusd they drove him back to Beulah
His body was redeemd to be permanent thro Mercy Divine"
British Museum
Illustrations to Young's Night Thoughts
Urizen, having been released from the misconceptions which blinded him to the true function which was his to perform, experiences an outpouring of creative energy. Freed from the garments which masqueraded for the lineaments of man, the seed which had been buried deep is unearthed and replanted in soil which is prepared to nourish it. 

Blake's poetry asks us to allow the symbol of the seed to be planted in us. And if it is, it will become active in our hearts, and minds and souls and bodies. The shifting of the imagery from 'souls of All the Dead,' to 'turnd the horses loose,' to 'sow the seed,' to 'fall like stars,' signals the transcendence of earthly events. The simultaneous harrowing of the seed and beginning of the harvest indicate the Eternal nature of the events being described.

The picture Blake uses with the text expands the imagery to include the seed as materialized humans carrying scraps of paper on which are written the words of life.

Mark 4
[20] And these are they which are sown on good ground; such as hear the word, and receive it, and bring forth fruit, some thirtyfold, some sixty, and some an hundred.

Revelation 14
[14] And I looked, and behold a white cloud, and upon the cloud one sat like unto the Son of man, having on his head a golden crown, and in his hand a sharp sickle.
[15] And another angel came out of the temple, crying with a loud voice to him that sat on the cloud, Thrust in thy sickle, and reap: for the time is come for thee to reap; for the harvest of the earth is ripe.
[16] And he that sat on the cloud thrust in his sickle on the earth; and the earth was reaped.

Second Corinthians (JB Phillips Translation)
5:1-4 - We know, for instance, that if our earthly dwelling were taken down, like a tent, we have a permanent house in Heaven, made, not by man, but by God. In this present frame we sigh with deep longing for the heavenly house, for we do not want to face utter nakedness when death destroys our present dwelling - these bodies of ours. So long as we are clothed in this temporary dwelling we have a painful longing, not because we want just to get rid of these "clothes" but because we want to know the full cover of the permanent house that will be ours. We want our transitory life to be absorbed into the life that is eternal.

Marriage of Heaven & Hell, Plate 6,(E 35)
    "A Memorable Fancy.                        

   As I was walking among the fires of hell, delighted with the 
enjoyments of Genius; which to Angels look like torment and
insanity. I collected some of their Proverbs: thinking that as
the sayings used in a nation, mark its character, so the Proverbs
of Hell, shew the nature of Infernal wisdom better than any
description of buildings or garments.
   When I came home; on the abyss of the five senses, where a
flat  sided steep frowns over the present world. I saw a mighty
Devil folded in black clouds, hovering on the sides of the rock,
with corroding fires he wrote the following sentence now
percieved by the minds of men, & read by them on earth.

   How do you know but ev'ry Bird that cuts the airy way,
   Is an immense world of delight, clos'd by your senses five?

     Proverbs of Hell.         

In seed time learn, in harvest teach, in winter enjoy."