Wednesday, December 14, 2011

Plate Thirteen

Plate 13 is  continuous  word for word from Plate12, and
continues without a break in Plate 14; it left little room
for the pictorial.
Repeating the end of Plate 13 (for consistency):
Fourfold the Sons of Los in their divisions: and fourfold,      
The great City of Golgonooza: fourfold toward the north
And toward the south fourfold, & fourfold toward the east & west
Each within other toward the four points: that toward
Eden, and that toward the World of Generation,
And that toward Beulah, and that toward Ulro:                  
Ulro is the space of the terrible starry wheels of Albions sons:
But that toward Eden is walled up, till time of renovation:
Yet it is perfect in its building, ornaments & perfection.

And the Four Points are thus beheld in Great Eternity
West, the Circumference: South, the Zenith: North,              
The Nadir: East, the Center, unapproachable for ever.
These are the four Faces towards the Four Worlds of Humanity
In every Man. Ezekiel saw them by Chebars flood.
And the Eyes are the South, and the Nostrils are the East.
And the Tongue is the West, and the Ear is the North.          

And the North Gate of Golgonooza toward Generation;
Has four sculpturd Bulls terrible before the Gate of iron.
And iron, the Bulls: and that which looks toward Ulro,
Clay bak'd & enamel'd, eternal glowing as four furnaces:
Turning upon the Wheels of Albions sons with enormous power.    
And that toward Beulah four, gold, silver, brass, & iron:

And that toward Eden, four, form'd of gold, silver, brass, &

The South, a golden Gate, has four Lions terrible, living!
That toward Generation, four, of iron carv'd wondrous:
That toward Ulro, four, clay bak'd, laborious workmanship
That toward Eden, four; immortal gold, silver, brass & iron.    

The Western Gate fourfold, is closd: having four Cherubim
Its guards, living, the work of elemental hands, laborious task!
Like Men, hermaphroditic, each winged with eight wings
That towards Generation, iron; that toward Beulah, stone;
That toward  Ulro, clay: that toward Eden, metals.              
But all clos'd up till the last day, when the graves shall yield
    their dead

The Eastern Gate, fourfold: terrible & deadly its ornaments:
Taking their forms from the Wheels of Albions sons; as cogs
Are formd in a wheel, to fit the cogs of the adverse wheel.

That toward Eden, eternal ice, frozen in seven folds            
Of forms of death: and that toward Beulah, stone:
The seven diseases of the earth are carved terrible.
And that toward Ulro, forms of war: seven enormities:
And that toward Generation, seven generative forms.

And every part of the City is fourfold; & every inhabitant,
And every pot & vessel & garment & utensil of the houses,
And every house, fourfold; but the third Gate in every one
Is closd as with a threefold curtain of ivory & fine linen &
And Luban stands in middle of the City. a moat of fire,
Surrounds Luban, Los's Palace & the golden Looms of Cathedron.  

And sixty-four thousand Genii, guard the Eastern Gate:
And sixty-four thousand Gnomes, guard the Northern Gate:
And sixty-four thousand Nymphs, guard the Western Gate:
And sixty-four thousand Fairies, guard the Southern Gate:

Around Golgonooza lies the land of death eternal; a Land        
Of pain and misery and despair and ever brooding melancholy:
In all the Twenty-seven Heavens, numberd from Adam to Luther;
From the blue Mundane Shell, reaching to the Vegetative Earth.

The Vegetative Universe, opens like a flower from the Earths
In which is Eternity. It expands in Stars to the Mundane Shell  
And there it meets Eternity again, both within and without,
And the abstract Voids between the Stars are the Satanic Wheels.

There is the Cave; the Rock; the Tree; the Lake of Udan Adan;
The Forest, and the Marsh, and the Pits of bitumen deadly:
The Rocks of solid fire: the Ice valleys: the Plains            
Of burning sand: the rivers, cataract & Lakes of Fire:
The Islands of the fiery Lakes: the Trees of Malice: Revenge:
And black Anxiety; and the Cities of the Salamandrine men:
(But whatever is visible to the Generated Man,
Is a Creation of mercy & love, from the Satanic Void.)          
The land of darkness flamed but no light, & no repose:
The land of snows of trembling, & of iron hail incessant:
The land of earthquakes: and the land of woven labyrinths:
The land of snares & traps & wheels & pit-falls & dire mills:
The Voids, the Solids, & the land of clouds & regions of waters:
With their inhabitants: in the Twenty-seven Heavens beneath
Self-righteousnesses conglomerating against the Divine Vision:
A Concave Earth wondrous, Chasmal, Abyssal, Incoherent!
Forming the Mundane Shell: above; beneath: on all sides
Golgonooza: Los walks round the walls night and day.            

He views the City of Golgonooza, & its smaller Cities:
The Looms & Mills & Prisons & Work-houses of Og & Anak:
The Amalekite: the Canaanite: the Moabite: the Egyptian:
And all that has existed in the space of six thousand years:
Permanent, & not lost not lost nor vanishd, & every little act, 

Word, work, & wish, that has existed, all remaining still
In those Churches ever consuming & ever building by the Spectres
Of all the inhabitants of Earth wailing to be Created:
Shadowy to those who dwell not in them, meer possibilities:
But to those who enter into them they seem the only substances  
For every thing exists & not one sigh nor smile nor tear,
Here is Plate 13, the text and the picture.
This is Plate 13:
Blake always leaned toward Fourfold:

This from 'Blake's City of Golgonooza
in Jerusalem: Metaphor and Mandala'
Jerusalem is organized around four principal cities; they are
Gogonooza, and
Three of them are familiar enough, but the
arcane city of Golgonooza is likely to seem, to an unsuspecting reader,
as unapproachable as some legendary Forbidden City. Access to the
luminous spaces of Blake's unique, yet traditional, city can be facili-
tated in two ways: First, the nature of Golgonooza will be clarified by
comparison to the other major cities of the poem; and second, a guided
tour into the city will be given in a detailed reading of the mandala-map
left by Blake on plates 12 and 13 of Jerusalem.
When Blake encounters what Kenneth Johnston calls the effects of "a
religion based on mystery, an economy based on militarism, in short the
British Empire, as he saw it,"2 the poet is in Babylon. Babylon, for
Blake, is enslavement by material necessity. It is the world of ex-
perience, cut off from the insight of innocence. Anyone in Babylon is
in captivity, like the Jews under Nebuchadnezzar. While they were
exiled from their home and temple, those in Blake's Babylon are exiled
from inspiration and the forgiveness of sin. In Revelation a long list of
the "merchandise of Babylon" concludes with: "slaves, and souls of
men" (18:12-13). This condition of slavery characterizes Babylon......
In contrast to the death-centered world of Babylon is the life-sustain-
ing city of Golgonooza. Notice the difference in its furnishings:
"The stones [of Golgonooza] are pity, and the bricks well-
wrought affections
Enamel'd with love & kindness, & the tiles graven gold,
Labour of merciful hands: the beams and rafters are forgiveness:
The mortar & cement of the work tears of honesty: the nails
And screws & iron braces are well wrought blandishments
And well contrived words, firm fixing, never forgotten.
Always comforting the remembrance: the floors humility:
The cielings, devotion: the hearths thanksgiving." (J 12)
Golgonooza, an antidote to Babylon, is a human habitation. It is home-
ly. While it is often referred to as the "City of Art,"4 it should be re-
membered that its foundation is consciously deployed human warmth
and love. It is a spiritual place that exists in London surrounded by the
miseries of Babylon.
Jerusalem is "a City, yet a Woman" in Blake's epics (FZ ix: 222. See
fig. 3). Etymologically, Jerusalem means the "height of peace," and it
is in the root of the word, more than any coordinates on a map, where it
is to be found.
Golgonooza is a place within Jerusalem. Jerusalem is the
Eternal City whereas Golgonooza is within Time, being built by Los
towards Eternity. The positive qualities of Golgonooza are congruent
with those of Jerusalem. The style of metaphor used to describe Gol-
gonooza is continued with Jerusalem. "Gates of Thanksgiving . . .
Windows of Praise . . . Clouds of Blessing, Cherubims of Tender-
mercy" (J 24) are the means by which Blake recognizes "the city of the
living God, heavenly Jerusalem" (Hebrews 12:22).
Structurally Blake wrote Jerusalem in four chapters: to the public,
to the Jews, to the Deists, and to the Christians. There were four kinds
of vision, etc.
He thought fourly.  If we study the four gates, we will undoubtedly
profit. (This note came more or less in toto from Bogan's article,
which appears at Colby Library Quarterly, June 1981; it's very
worthwhile reading.

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